Entreprenuership Course Guide: CBU 4109
The Entreprenuership Research guide is meant to direct researchers to the main topics of Entrepreneurial Management: entrepreneurial opportunity assessment, writing business plans, building a business model and strategy, financing new firms, venture capital, managing entrepreneurial growth, managing international start-ups, and entrepreneurial harvesting and exit, and entrepreneurship and venture capital.
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A strategic perspective of entrepreneurship Some full text available
Contends that the E-V-R (environment-values-resources) congruence model provides an ideal framework for examining what entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial managers must achieve strategically in order to create and sustain organisational effectiveness and success. E-V-R shows how the environment is a source of opportunities and threats - external key success factors; and that resources constitute strengths and weaknesses, strategic competencies which either match, or fail to match, environmental needs. Sustaining and changing this strategic fit is dependent on leadership, culture and values. Goes on to show that entrepreneurship is a process which is essential for establishing winning strategic positions and, as such, is relevant and vital for all types and size of organisation. Concludes with a summary model which relates the characteristics of successful strategic leadership with the key issues of risk and crisis management.
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An overview of contemporary ethnic entrepreneurship studies: themes and relationships Some full text available
Purpose – The aim of this study is to explore the status of contemporary ethnic entrepreneurship studies in 1999-2008 in order to map the intellectual structure of ethnic entrepreneurship research and to provide insights for future research in this field.

Design/methodology/approach – This study collected citation data from SSCI, resulting in a data set of 403 journal articles and 18,656 cited references. Then using co-citation analysis, this study identified the core research themes in the ethnic entrepreneurship literature in 1999-2008.

Findings – The results showed that contemporary ethnic entrepreneurship studies clustered around a few key research themes and their research foci have shifted from research on enclave economies, ethnic enterprises, and social embeddedness to research on immigrant entrepreneurs, immigrant networks, and transnational entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications – With the qualification of citation and co-citation analysis, this study profiles the changing paradigms of contemporary ethnic entrepreneurship studies and traces the development of ethnic entrepreneurship research, and thus provides important insights on future ethnic entrepreneurship research, including transnational entrepreneurs, theory refinement and theory development on ethnic entrepreneurship, as well as ethnic culture and entrepreneurship. Limitations of using SSCI data are also discussed.

Originality/value – The intellectual structure of ethnic entrepreneurship literature has received relatively little attention in spite that a large number of studies have been done in this field. This study provides researchers with a new way of profiling key themes and their relationships in ethnic entrepreneurship, which will help the academia and practitioners better understand contemporary ethnic entrepreneurship studies.
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Antecedents of strategic corporate entrepreneurship Some full text available
Purpose – Entrepreneurship theories have a predominant developed economy focus, but the relevance of these theories for emerging economies remains largely untested. The purpose of this paper is to show how the antecedents to strategic corporate entrepreneurship influence the entrepreneurial intensity of emerging economy firms in South Africa.

Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative study was carried out, using a telephone survey to obtain responses from 146 established South African firms.

Findings – The findings indicate that entrepreneurship theories are contingent on the economic context. Entrepreneurial intensity (EI) of firms is strongly related to organizational antecedents and environmental opportunity perceptions. Three organizational antecedents are crucial to create a supportive internal environment: management support, autonomy and rewards. Furthermore, perceptions of munificence are positively related to EI. However, hostility, found to be related to entrepreneurial activity in developed economies, is not related to EI in this sample.

Practical implications – Managers, operating in emerging economies, can stimulate strategic corporate entrepreneurship by creating a supportive internal climate and fostering opportunity perceptions in dynamic, hostile environments; however, strategies using social or political capital seem to be more suitable for managing threats.

Originality/value – This paper enriches understanding of the contingent nature of entrepreneurship theories, suggesting that emerging country context matters, in terms of environmental opportunity and hostility perceptions for strategic corporate entrepreneurship.
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Differentiating the effects of the institutional environment on corporate entrepreneurship Some full text available
Purpose – The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of how different dimensions of the institutional environment of a region may influence the level of corporate entrepreneurship of firms.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper develops the relationship between the institutional environment, differentiated in regulatory, cognitive and normative dimensions, and entrepreneurship in existing firms, corporate entrepreneurship, via a questionnaire study covering 150 firms in Spain.

Findings – The relation between institutional environment and corporate entrepreneurship can be distinct. The results show that both the normative and cognitive dimension of the institutional environment influence an organisation's entrepreneurial orientation. They also show that regulatory dimension influences what type of corporate entrepreneurial activity is carried out.

Originality/value – Literature about institutional theory and entrepreneurship has been both descriptive and fragmented. This paper complements the increasing interest in the analysis of the influence of institutional frameworks on corporate entrepreneurship and answers recent calls in the literature to complete previous analyses in an empirical way that supports previous works.
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Encouraging fashion entrepreneurship in Singapore Some full text available
Focuses on entrepreneurship in the fashion industry in Singapore, especially in the business of apparel fashion designing and retailing. Examines the factors that contribute to that success of this industry. Considers the support given to the fashion entrepreneur and the fashion schools in Singapore, including the difficulties encountered in starting and running such a business and the success factors. Concludes that the limited domestic market and lack of capital are the major difficulties. Suggests that whilst support has increased over the years, talent, the availability of capital and hard work seem to be the deciding factors determining success.
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Entrepreneurship among business graduates: does a major in entrepreneurship make a difference? Some full text available
Entrepreneurship has become a widely taught subject in universities and business schools. However, only a very small number of studies have investigated the effect of entrepreneurship education. The present research compares the behaviour of business graduates with a major in entrepreneurship and graduates with other majors from a Norwegian business school. The results indicate that graduates with an entrepreneurship major are more likely to start new businesses and have stronger entrepreneurial intentions than other graduates.
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Entrepreneurship and ethics Some full text available
In business and the culture hospitable to it, not much is more important than the moral status of entrepreneurship. If the entrepreneur is a rascal, a rogue, the system that gives such a person a home is surely tainted. Critics of capitalism such as Robert Kuttner and Earl Shorris have made this point repeatedly in their various prominently published books. They follow the likes of Karl Marx, only unlike Marx they see nothing redeeming about the free market. (Marx thought it was a vital stage of humanity’s development!)
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Entrepreneurship and urban growth: dimensions and empirical models Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to look at various dimensions of entrepreneurship and the empirical models that try to explain the relationship between entrepreneurship and growth in cities for both developed (USA and Europe) and developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper provides an in-depth and extensive review of the existing literature on entrepreneurship and economic growth in cities. In most empirical studies, the growth rate of employment or unemployment rate is used as the dependent variable to analyze the effect of entrepreneurship on development. The important independent variables other than entrepreneurship (new start-ups) are localization, urbanization, level of education, age, industry structure (specialization vs competition), monopoly or competition. The economic units considered for cities are labor market areas (LMAs), standard metropolitan areas (SMAs) and consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs). The majority of studies have utilized discrete dependent variable models such as Tobit or Probit to calculate the probability of the effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth. Other studies have applied ordinary least squares estimation to find the cross-sectional variation of employment growth that accounts for entrepreneurial activities. Panel data are employed in a number of models to control for region-specific and country-specific fixed effects.

Findings – In this paper, four important dimensions of entrepreneurship are identified. First, for entrepreneurial studies on economic growth, cities are considered to be appropriate economic units rather than states or countries. Second, there are several definitions and measurements of entrepreneurship available in the literature. Hence, empirical models and their results may vary depending on the model specification. Third, the relationship between employment growth (a proxy for economic growth) and innovative activity is dynamic in nature and thus the problem of endogeneity needs to be addressed. And, finally, entrepreneurship has a spatial dimension and that characteristic must be incorporated into the urban and regional models of entrepreneurship. Three different types of urban models are chosen to reflect these four central dimensions of entrepreneurship. All three urban models confirm the hypothesis that there exists a statistically significant and positive relationship between entrepreneurship and growth in cities. However, the causality of the relationship is not well established.

Originality/value – A critical and in-depth summary of existing quantitative work on entrepreneurship and economic growth in different cities is the original contribution of the paper.
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Entrepreneurship as connecting: some implications for theorising and practice Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to consider why entrepreneurship theorising has become fragmented and how the research problem might be resolved.

Design/methodology/approach – The authors first examine how entrepreneurial constructs reflect only part of what we “mean” by the construct to argue that we use different social constructions. This explains why theories are fragmented. But the authors then ask how we might use and reconcile this diversity, pointing to the utility of the constructs as part of a complex whole. The authors discuss entrepreneurship as a complex adaptive system showing how connections and relatedness help explain the power of entrepreneurship to use and adapt to change.

Research implications – The authors' proposition of entrepreneurial endeavours as a complex adaptive system provides a fresh theoretical platform to examine aspects of entrepreneurship and improve theorising.

Practical implications – The authors argue that this idea of connecting can also be used at the level of practice – how the connections that entrepreneurs use may help to explain some of what goes on in entrepreneurial practice.

Originality/value – The paper's contribution is a relatively novel way of connecting diverse theorising.
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Entrepreneurship education in HE: are policy makers expecting too much? Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore current entrepreneurship and enterprise education policy in the UK. The way is which such education is defined and conceptualized in current policy discourse is discussed. The key question addressed in the paper is whether policy makers are expecting too much from current entrepreneurship provision in UK HE.

Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual, perspective style paper, drawing mainly on entrepreneurship and enterprise education policy documents in the UK as well as related reports and academic literature mainly published within the last decade. As such, its main intention is to prompt further debate and research in this area.

Findings – The paper helps further our understanding of entrepreneurship and enterprise education as portrayed in current policy documents, and suggests that expectations of outcomes from its inclusion in higher education (HE) may have spiralled beyond what is both realistic and possible. The author argues for a more realistic and measurable perspective of the expectations of entrepreneurship and enterprise education in HE, particularly in non-traditional discipline areas, and suggests that policy in this regard is in need of realignment.

Research limitations/implications – The paper is based mainly on UK entrepreneurship and enterprise education policy documents published within the last decade, as well as related papers.

Practical implications – The paper has implications for educators and policy makers in terms of curriculum design and expectations.

Originality/value – The paper should be of value to researchers, educators and those involved in curricula design in the area of entrepreneurship and enterprise education. The paper should be of particular value to policy makers in the context of helping them to be more realistic in relation to their expectations of such education.
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Entrepreneurship research Some full text available
Purpose – With the rapid emergence of scholarly thinking and analysis about entrepreneurship has come a multiplicity of approaches, emanating from different academic traditions. This has resulted in an academic field that is complex and heterogeneous with respect to approaches, methodologies and even the understanding about what exactly constitutes entrepreneurship. The purpose of this paper is to try to reconcile the different approaches and views about entrepreneurship that are prevalent in the literature.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form of a literature review.

Findings – The paper finds that while such heterogeneity can be the source of a nuanced and at times contractor research field, it is also the source of richness and diversity that has contributed to making the emerging field so dynamic.

Practical implications – The field of entrepreneurship should remain committed to a diversity of approaches, understandings and methodologies about what constitutes entrepreneurial activity.

Originality/value – The value of the paper is that it presents a coherent framework that reconciles disparate approaches and understandings about what actually constitutes entrepreneurship.
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Entrepreneurship: what triggers it? Some full text available
It is apparent that there exists no such thing as one identifiable and universal entrepreneurial culture. Furthermore, the key to initiating the process of entrepreneurship lies within the individual members of society, and the degree to which a spirit of enterprise exists, or can be stimulated. The key question is, what triggers the release of this invaluable enterprising spirit? This paper seeks to make a small contribution towards an explanation by focusing on one aspect – the relationship of certain cultural and societal factors. It is argued that there is a significant relationship between entrepreneurship and cultural specificity. This has been progressed through a cross-country study that involved Australia, Slovenia, Mexico, North America, Finland, Scotland, South Africa and Kenya. Following a review of the variables that contribute to culture in general and entrepreneurial culture in particular, a sample of findings from the study are integrated to illustrate key categories of analysis. The aim is to instigate a shift in thinking from universal generalization relative to entrepreneurship, to a deeper understanding of the symbiotic relationship between entrepreneurship and culture.
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Environmental commitment: a basis for environmental entrepreneurship? Some full text available
A recurring theme in the literature concerning the relationship between business and the natural environment is one of commitment. On the one hand, such commitment is perceived as a prerequisite to the gaining of corporate support for strategies related to an organization environmental activities. Within this dynamic, the role of management is to generate an organizational vision of corporate environmental responsibility. On the other hand, a desired consequence of that vision is an organizational climate within which employees become imbued with the vision itself and commit themselves to it (Gibb, 1995; Learned, 1992; Mitton, 1989). As a term, commitment is therefore used to denote both a process and a resultant through which organizational members display environmental concerns.

There is, however, almost no treatment or consensus in academic literature as to what commitment actually means in this context. Perhaps even more importantly, there is no understanding of how such commitment arises or is sustained in organizations and the individuals within them. One of the key issues this paper wishes to explore is the role of entrepreneurship and its link to commitment to the natural environment.

The vision or values of an organization have significant strategic power in terms of shaping any organizational direction (Chen, et al., 1997; Shrivastava, 1995). Not only can these values guide corporate culture, they often drive changes in the culture as well (Humble et al., 1994). Entrepreneurial activities can serve to bring about this shift in values and culture. Entrepreneurship and/or entrepreneurship can be the mechanisms by which environmental responsibilities are championed within the organization (Drumwright, 1994). This may result in the firm becoming an environmental leader, and may provide an international competitive advantage (Dechant and Altman, 1994; Porter and van de Linde, 1994).
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Firm resources and entrepreneurial orientation as determinants for collaborative entrepreneurship Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate what factors drive collaborative entrepreneurship. To do so, the authors examine the joint influence of both firm resources and entrepreneurial orientation on the decision to establish interfirm alliances. The paper considers new variables which are likely to determine the phenomenon.

Design/methodology/approach – Based on a random sample, the authors performed a cross-sectional study among 84 Portuguese firms. Data collection was made by an online questionnaire with a personalised link and answer control codes. For data analyses, the authors used descriptive statistics and logistic regression (logit model).

Findings – The results indicate that several resources and some dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation are linked with collaborative entrepreneurship, but the effects are rather mixed. In particular, financial, commercial and administrative resources, as well as innovative potential and collective capability, seem to be most relevant for the alliance engagement.

Originality/value – This study contributes to a better understanding of collaborative entrepreneurship. Knowing the driving forces behind this phenomenon helps firms to engage more actively in interfirm cooperation.
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Gender and entrepreneurship: a review and process model Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on gender, and specifically, women and entrepreneurship as well as present a process model of gender and entrepreneurship to guide future research.

Design/methodology/approach – Following research from Baron and Henry, the literature is organized into a process model of gender and entrepreneurship and a brief review of the research on each stage of the model is presented. Further, building on the process model, specific propositions associated with each stage that are motivated by expectancy theory are developed.

Findings – Research on women and entrepreneurship has increased over the last two decades and there is much research yet to be done.

Practical implications – Practical implications include that women may engage in networking activities focused on family and friends for obtaining financial resources.

Social implications – Based on this review, evidence suggests societal attributions and socialization processes relative to the sexes may create barriers to entry for women due to the uneven distribution of assets, educational foci, and daily life activity expectations amongst the sexes. These factors, in effect, create the glass ceiling that women are often described as facing that extends to entrepreneurship. To lessen these effects, women might be advised to pursue education within fields more closely linked to high-growth industries.

Originality/value – The authors review research on women and entrepreneurship from 1993-2010 and organize the literature within Baron and Henry's process model of entrepreneurship. As such, the paper illuminates a process model of gender and entrepreneurship that builds from and extends research linking the I/O psychology and entrepreneurship literatures.
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Graduate entrepreneurship in the developing world: intentions, education and development Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce the special issue by positioning and examining some of the key issues, tensions and challenges in graduate entrepreneurship in the developing world.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper recognises the complexity and diversity of approaches considered by the different authors, highlighting a range of issues and challenges in their contributions. The paper is divided into the following sections: entrepreneurial intentions, attitudes and motivations; the role of higher education; and contextual cases, opportunities and challenges in graduate entrepreneurship.

Findings – The paper suggests that there is a lack of research in the field of graduate entrepreneurship in the developing world, and that further research in developing countries may help to understand and shed light on the issues evolving around graduate entrepreneurial intentions, business start-up and education. Some preliminary themes emerge from research included in this special issue. First, entrepreneurial intentions seem to be higher in developing countries when compared with developed ones. Second, economic and institutional frameworks tend to be unfavourable to entrepreneurial activity. As in developed countries, entrepreneurship seems to be experiencing an upsurge. This could be a tremendously powerful force to accelerate economic growth and development. In this sense, higher education in general, and entrepreneurship education in particular, may be key instruments to help promote entrepreneurial activity.

Originality/value – The paper provides an insight into entrepreneurial intentions and related education and training in developing countries. This should be of interest to researchers, policy-makers, and higher education institutions.
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Growing artificial entrepreneurs: Advancing entrepreneurship research using agent-based simulation approach Some full text available
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to offer agent-based modelling (ABM) as an alternative approach to advance research in entrepreneurship. It argues that ABM allows entrepreneurship researchers (i.e. the designers) to find better ways in generating entrepreneurial outcomes by understanding alternative histories and examining a plausible future.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper begins with an overview of ABM, and discusses the shared conceptual foundations of entrepreneurship and ABM as the motives for the adoption of ABM as an appropriate methodology to study entrepreneurship. It offers a roadmap in using ABM approach for entrepreneurship research and illustrates this using a contemporary research question in entrepreneurship: the study of success/failure in business venturing.

Findings – This paper suggests the shared foundations between ABM and entrepreneurship as the basis for bringing the methodology and research domain closer. It offers a roadmap for advancing entrepreneurship research using agent-based simulation approach and explains the contribution of ABM to further advance entrepreneurship research.

Originality/value – This paper addresses the methodological gap in entrepreneurship research and develops the argument for a wider adoption of ABM simulation approach to study entrepreneurship. It bridges the gap by examining the possibility of formalizing entrepreneurship processes by grounding an agent-based model on empirical facts and generally-accepted foundations of entrepreneurship. It offers a contribution to the literature by showing that ABM is a useful and appropriate methodological approach for entrepreneurship research in addition to the conventional variance and process approach.
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Illuminating the black box of entrepreneurship education programs Some full text available
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the components of entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) and their interrelationships to develop a conceptual framework through which entrepreneurship education may be contextually evaluated and developed.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents an extensive literature review of the entrepreneurship education literature which is used to inform a comprehensive framework for entrepreneurial education; based upon contextualisation, outcomes, objectives, audience, assessment, content and pedagogy.

Findings – The paper develops a comprehensive and parsimonious framework for understanding and evaluating entrepreneurship education programs based on and adapted from the extended conceptualisations and contextualisation of previous research on entrepreneurship education programs.

Research limitations/implications – This paper presents preliminary conceptualisation and as such requires subsequent testing in various entrepreneurship contexts.

Practical implications – The framework elaborated upon can provide a comprehensive view of entrepreneurship education programs by examining and describing the relationships between the components. In so doing, the paper illuminates for educators and researchers a comprehensive view of an entrepreneurship education program which can be used by contextualising the components of outcomes, objectives, assessment and pedagogy.

Originality/value – The value of this work lies in its responsiveness to the calls in the academic literature for more appropriate evaluations of entrepreneurship programs and greater contextualisation of the programs to facilitate research into the effectiveness of such programs. The paper proposes that EEPs have to be developed, not only with objectives in mind, but in the context within which they operate.
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Incorporating feminist theories into sociological theories of entrepreneurship Some full text available
Feminist critiques can provide new insights into organizational theories by examining the historical context in which these theories emerged, the research methods in which the theories are grounded, and the assumptions underlying the theories themselves. This paper applies a feminist critique to sociological theories of entrepreneurship. First, the sociological theories are described, focusing on the effects of political factors, state policies, culture, spatial location, and professionalization on entrepreneurship. This is followed by an analysis of these sociological theories investigating the values embedded in these theories and demonstrating how they can take gender relations into consideration. Finally, several directions for future research are discussed along with the potential feminist theories which have to produce change at the societal level.
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Innovation and entrepreneurship Some full text available
Purpose – This article aims to discuss the importance of innovation and entrepreneurship in today's economic environment and why such activities should be part of leadership.

Design/methodology/approach – The article references journals and conference activity that have demonstrated successful innovation activities.

Findings – References and additional reading provide case studies and examples of successful innovative ideas. It is noted that more innovation and resulting entrepreneurial activities will be needed as libraries redefine themselves.

Practical implications – Innovation can work but needs the culture in which to operate.

Social implications – Collaboration with the broader community is not only beneficial but necessary in a global society.

Originality/value – The article references both an active journal and conference cycle for persons interested in more information.
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Innovation, entrepreneurship and economic growth Some full text available
Purpose – The main aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between innovation and economic growth, following the Schumpeter approach, considering the entrepreneurship activity.

Design/methodology/approach – Several hypotheses are tested considering three equations, for the case of ten developed countries. To estimate the equations, generalized least square (GLS)-cross-section weights and panel least squares methodologies for the period 2001-2009 have been used.

Findings – Innovation plays a central role in the economic growth process and the entrepreneur is the vehicle to introduce the new technologies to improve the firms' activity and to obtain higher profits. It is also necessary to include in this process other variables: social climate and the role of institutions.

Practical implications – Some measures can design from these results to improve innovation and entrepreneurship activity, which would have positive effects on economic growth.

Originality/value – Schumpeterian approach is developed for this analysis, and empirical estimations are carried out to test hypotheses on economic growth and innovation, considering not only the traditional quantitative variables but also qualitative ones, having a wider view about the process. Drucker statement on innovation effects on entrepreneurship activity is also tested.
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Integrating “education for entrepreneurship” in multiple faculties in “half-the-time” to enhance graduate entrepreneurship
Purpose – This paper seeks to highlight the role of entrepreneurship education in encouraging the growth of graduate entrepreneurship in the UK to help overcome the over-supply of university graduates in a very difficult employment market. This paper aims to discuss the design principle for entrepreneurship education that facilitates graduate entrepreneurship, and the design methodology that allows multi-faculty collaboration in the provision of entrepreneurship programmes.

Design/methodology/approach – This paper begins with the conceptualisation of design principles and frameworks based on current concepts found in the literature, followed by practitioner-based reflection to shed insights into the process of developing entrepreneurship education in higher education institutions (HEIs).

Findings – The authors have developed the “30/70 methodology” to guide the future design of entrepreneurship education, and the “80/20 methodology” to support cross-faculty entrepreneurship programmes to serve non-business students. Factors that impede or support academic entrepreneurship and effective integration of entrepreneurship programmes in HEIs are discussed.

Originality/value – This paper shares the authors' experiences, and their unique design principles and methodology to support the development of education for entrepreneurship.
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Is technical training an obstacle to entrepreneurship? Some full text available
Purpose – Entrepreneurial initiative has come to be recognised the world over as a driver of economic and social development. However, there is still a long way to go in terms of understanding the acquisition of capabilities related to entrepreneurship. In today's society, it is clear that human capital determines the rate at which quality of life improves or declines, as well as the competitiveness of productive systems. Conceptually, engineers might be regarded as vital enablers of change. This paper seeks to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach – A questionnaire was passed to the students of civil engineering, which contained questions on the desirability of new venture creation or the intention to start up a new business. The questionnaire also asked respondents about the perception of the feasibility of creating a new venture, and the perceived image and economic and social evaluation of the business owner, as well as the prestige and recognition of the figure of the entrepreneur in comparison with other professions. Maintaining this structure enabled the authors to compare the results of this survey with other studies carried out in different fields and moments in time.

Findings – Engineers perceive creativity and innovation as having characteristics that are inherent in the qualities associated with their profession, in the sense that the engineer is someone who uses inventiveness to achieve or carry out objectives. In short, it is a profession that involves the application of ingenuity. However, engineering graduates rarely consider starting up a business as one of their career options upon completing their studies, and will invariably look to work for established firms.

Research limitations/implications – Technical training appears to be an enabler of creativity and an obstacle to business initiative. It would be interesting to analyse this implication over time.

Practical implications – The results of this study indicate a clear demand to complete the entrepreneurial training of civil engineering students. When asked about the possibility or opportunity of complementing their studies with business-related training, a large part of the sample (43 per cent) were in total agreement, and 29 per cent were generally in favour.

Social implications – It can be concluded that the introduction of subjects that promote business creation in a technical degree course, such as engineering, is both necessary and desirable.

Originality/value – With a view to identifying the attitudes and beliefs amongst engineers towards business creation, this paper analyses the desirability, feasibility and intention to create a new firm, as well as the image and perception of the figure of the business owner, and the personal characteristics of civil engineering students as entrepreneurs.
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Learning entrepreneurship in higher education Some full text available
National and regional economies need a constant flux of new entrepreneurs (European Union, 2003, Schumpeter, 1926). It is difficult to see how economic regions would compete without individuals who constantly renew business processes and innovate new products, services and strategies (Schumpeter, 1926). Thus it is not surprising that developing new entrepreneurs is seen as a major strategic task in the policy program mes of both Finland and the European Union.

The literature describes entrepreneurs according to their ability to adapt to the changing demands of their customers and their own business environment, and the ability to offer a constant process of innovation to societies, no matter whether that innovation is a service or a physical product (Schumpeter, 1926). In addition, as societies, their people, and their tastes change, entrepreneurs function as an evolutionary force by adapting their businesses to meet those changes (Giunipero et al., 2005) because rigidity in the face of change would only lead to business failure (Zimmerer and Scarborough, 2002). Without an entrepreneurial attitude societies can stagnate, which can hinder the long-term growth and prosperity of a region.

There is evidence that academically educated entrepreneurs are more important in developing regional economies than entrepreneurs with a lower level of education. This view is based on research results that reveal that entrepreneurs with a higher academic background are more often innovative, use modern business models, and base their ventures on the use of new technology (Pajarinen et al., 2006). Academic education offers students a chance to see the latest developments in their selected field, thus allowing them a clearer view on how to implement them in a business in the future. The business field itself is not of crucial importance, as academic entrepreneurs may be successful in both research-based and imitative businesses. The importance lies in using high-level skills in starting new business ventures and nurturing them on a growth path (Minniti and Lévesque, 2008). Thus, from the point of view of a national economy it is hoped that a large portion of academically educated people would pursue an entrepreneurial career.

Unfortunately, the current situation of support for entrepreneurship in higher education lacks depth, at least within the EU. Only about 24 per cent of university students have access to any education on entrepreneurship. The more focused the subject branch is, the less likelihood there is of a student learning entrepreneurial skills. Also, the competence and time allocated by academic staff to entrepreneurial education is inadequate. Hence, practical action is required in order to answer the challenge of producing more academically educated entrepreneurs (European Survey of Higher Education Institutions, 2008).

This paper aims to clarify the educational methods that effectively develop new entrepreneurs from within higher education institutions. It begins with a literary review of entrepreneurial competencies and the pedagogical methods used for acquiring them. Then the paper presents several successful learning environments aimed at education for entrepreneurship, i.e. education in which the goal is to produce new entrepreneurs and not just academic knowledge about entrepreneurship. Finally, some important aspects that higher education institutions need to consider are discussed in more detail. While the paper is written mainly from the perspective of Finland, the discussion allows for generalization, and thus should be applicable to the development of entrepreneurial learning environments in other nations facing similar problems in higher education.
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Pollution prevention as corporate entrepreneurship Some full text available
Environmental entrepreneurship is usually thought of as the creation of new products or services to meet environmental market opportunities. Pollution prevention is a new concept of the idea of environmental entrepreneurship as it is process based and focused on reducing costs rather than increasing revenues. As such, it is consistent both with the notion of entrepreneurship as a new venture and as a self-renewal of the whole organization. The central research question this study seeks to answer is: why have firms done so little pollution prevention given its many benefits? Using the entrepreneurship literature as a framework, this study examines threats and opportunities of pollution prevention, the marshaling of combinations of resources to pursue it, and barriers to achieving it. The data for this study are collected through content analysis of environmental information contained in voluntary environmental reports issued by companies. The study finds that corporations do not widely view pollution prevention as an opportunity - either as new venture or as self-renewal. Furthermore, the potential benefits of pollution prevention are not frequently recognized. Finally, corporations do not identify the factors that prevent or allow the marshaling of resources to exploit this potential opportunity. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.
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Qualitative entrepreneurship authorship: antecedents, processes and consequences Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report on a review of the writing practices and experiences of scholars who have published qualitative papers in the field of entrepreneurship. It evaluates existing knowledge about how “well-published” entrepreneurship scholars go about writing up qualitative research. It identifies the antecedents, processes, and consequences of qualitative research authorship as self-described by authors.

Design/methodology/approach – Scholars who had published qualitative papers in the five top-ranked entrepreneurship journals over a 20-year period were asked to complete a qualitative survey about their writing practices. A qualitative analysis of 37 usable replies was undertaken.

Findings – Entrepreneurship scholars perceive their qualitative research writing to be more enriching and philosophical than quantitative research. Although they feel strong connections with their research subjects, they find qualitative research difficult and time consuming to write up. It is hard to bridge the gap between working with large amounts of transcribed data and the editorial requirements of journals, without losing the vitality of data. Qualitative research and subsequent writing skills have often been learned by trial and error. Many are inspired by specific texts, which may include novels, poems or plays.

Practical implications – This work shows how useful it is to discuss qualitative writing processes so that we may learn from the “blood, toil, tears and sweat” of those who have already successfully navigated both the writing and publishing of qualitative research.

Originality/value – Although there is a vigorous debate within the entrepreneurship literature about the prevalence and suitability of different methods and methodological approaches, there is no explicit discussion of how researchers engage with writing up qualitative research for publication. The paper addresses this gap and shares insights and guidance from our community of practice.
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Supporting entrepreneurship in deprived communities: a vision too far? Some full text available
Purpose – Government intervention has increasingly identified deprived communities as a key focus for enterprise support. The purpose of this paper is to examine attitudes and perceptions to enterprise support in a deprived community in the UK city of Leeds.

Design/methodology/approach – A survey of 142 entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs, and 18 follow-up in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs, were conducted with people living in the study area. The survey examined the entrepreneurial activity of members of the community, and usage of enterprise support.

Findings – The paper finds that certain forms of enterprise support in deprived communities may actually discourage entrepreneurship. Also, where entrepreneurial ventures are supported they tend to operate in activities relating to generic trades with low entry barriers, with many enterprises having little actual or perceived requirement for external support, with it being likely that these would have been established with or without support.

Research limitations/implications – A potential limitation of the study is that it is restricted to a case study of deprived communities in one particular city.

Practical implications – Increased investment in the supply of enterprise support may not lead to increased levels of entrepreneurship, with support that aims to engage with people who have never considered starting a business, or do not have the skills required to launch and grow a venture, is unlikely to be cost-effective given their low growth potential.

Originality/value – The results of the research are potentially applicable to other deprived communities, and provide lessons for policy relating to the promotion of entrepreneurship.
note: Journal article
The abject of entrepreneurship: failure, fiasco, fraud Some full text available
Purpose – Failure as an integral part of the entrepreneurial process has recently become a hot topic. The purpose of this paper is to review this debate as expressed both in research on entrepreneurship and in the public discourse, in order to understand what kind of failure is being incorporated into the entrepreneurship discourse and what is being repressed.

Design/methodology/approach – The research design is twofold: an empirical investigation modelled as a discourse analysis is followed by a psychoanalytically inspired deconstruction of the identified hegemony. Where the discourse analysis treats what is omitted, the purpose of the psychoanalytic analysis is to point out more concretely what is being repressed from the hegemonic discourses that the first part of the paper identified.

Findings – The paper identifies a discursive shift from focusing on entrepreneurial success while at the same time negating failure, to embracing failure as a “learning experience”. Second, we trace this “fail better”-movement and identify a distinction between the “good failure” from which the entrepreneur learns, and the “bad failure” which may also imply a moral breakdown. Finally, the paper attempts to deconstruct this discourse deploying Kristeva's idea of the abject. The paper argues that the entrepreneurship discourse seeks closure through abjecting its own, real kernel, namely: the everyday, common, entrepreneurial failure. This image comprises the abject of entrepreneurship, and abject which does becomes visible, however, rarely: Bernie Madoff, Jeff Skilling, Stein Bagger.

Originality/value – This paper fulfils an identified need to study the darker and unwanted sides of entrepreneurship and extends our understanding of failure in entrepreneurial processes.
note: Journal article
The context of entrepreneurship education in Ethiopian universities Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore and evaluate entrepreneurship education in public universities in Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on the data obtained from 16 public universities in the country. The undergraduate curriculum of each university was examined to understand the departments in which entrepreneurship course(s) is/are offered. The syllabus for entrepreneurship course was examined to understand the focus areas and objectives of the entrepreneurship education. A questionnaire based on the literature was used to gather information about the background of entrepreneurship instructors, the teaching and evaluation methods employed in entrepreneurship courses.

Findings – The results show that entrepreneurship education is in its early phase of development in Ethiopian public universities. Entrepreneurship education was mainly offered in business schools and agricultural colleges, though recently it started to be included in the curricula of other schools too, mainly technology institutes/colleges. Traditional teaching and evaluation methods are dominant in teaching and assessing entrepreneurship courses in Ethiopian universities. Ethiopian public universities are also characterized by a dearth of entrepreneurship promotion centers.

Research limitations/implications – The study is based on the analysis of curricula and course syllabi and the evaluation of academic staff involved in teaching of entrepreneurship. The study would have been more complete had it included the perception of students.

Practical implications – The findings suggest the need for incorporating entrepreneurship education in all disciplines and the need to further improve the teaching and evaluation methods utilized in the courses. The findings also suggest the need to enhance the capacity of academic staff involved in teaching entrepreneurship.

Originality/value – The paper is the first to examine the state of entrepreneurship education in Ethiopian public universities in a detailed way.
note: Journal article
The effects of an entrepreneurship programme on Need for Achievement and Locus of Control of reinforcement Some full text available
The study examines the change in n Achievement and Locus of Control of individuals in an 9 months entrepreneurship programme. The experiment comprised of two experimental groups (n = 10 and n = 9), and two control groups (n = 19 and n = 32). All groups consisted of male and female students. All groups were at similar educational levels, age, and area of study. All participants had finished high school or an equivalent level of education. Need for Achievement was measured with Thematic Apperception Test consisting of six pictures. Locus of Control was measured with Rotter’s Internal-External test. A pretest was carried out in the beginning of the experimental and control groups education, the posttest after 7 months. A statistically significant increase in n Achievement (t = -3.33, p < 0.005) and in internal Locus of Control (t = 3.63, p = 0.001) were obtained as a result of participating in entrepreneurship education, while the control group showed no change. The result supports the hypothesis that participating in an entrepreneurship program me should increase Need for Achievement and internal Locus of Control of Reinforcement.
note: Journal article
The evolution of social entrepreneurship: what have we learned? Some full text available
Purpose – If there is one thing that truly characterizes entrepreneurship and especially social entrepreneurship, it is the “engaged scholarship” at their very heart. That is, teaching, outreach/service and research are connected, often tightly. The purpose of this paper therefore is to discuss the evolution of social entrepreneurship and the lessons learned.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper reports on the results of a multi-country survey dealing with social entrepreneurship.

Findings – It is found that a lot of maturing needs to be done in the area of social entrepreneurship work.

Originality/value – This paper provides real value to the literature by showing what is actually done in the teaching of social entrepreneurship.
note: Journal article
The gendering of entrepreneurship: theoretical and empirical insights
Purpose – This extended Editorial outlines the genesis and theoretical interests of the Gender and Enterprise Network from which this special issue of the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research emerged. In the call for papers, researchers were asked to employ existing gender theories to explore entrepreneurship. The theories and empirical insights presented in the five papers are summarised and compared. Key directions for future work are outlined.

Design/methodology/approach – Articles in the special issue include cross-national studies, multi-level analyses drawing on qualitative and quantitative methods, longitudinal analysis and feminist research. The Editorial explores methodological challenges, including how to encourage cross-national collaboration, research the circumstances in which entrepreneurship is gender liberating and embed gender theory in research on male entrepreneurship.

Findings – A comparison is made of the findings from the papers in this special issue, to draw out wider implications for our understanding of entrepreneurship as a gendered process.

Originality/value – This special issue represents a significant milestone in advancing our understanding of all entrepreneurship as gendered. Its focus on gender theory (rather than on the empirical study of women's entrepreneurship) is novel and marks the theoretical direction advocated by the Gender and Enterprise Network. It is hoped that the employment of gender theory in the Editorial and articles will spark the interest, and raise the contribution, of the wider entrepreneurship research community. An agenda for the future is outlined.
The influence on corporate entrepreneurship of technological variables Some full text available
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of different technological aspects of organizations on Spanish high-technology firms' performance.

Design/methodology/approach – The relationships studied are confirmed empirically using a structural equation model to demonstrate our hypotheses. The sample was selected from the database “Dun & Bradstreet España” in the year 2005 and includes 201 Spanish firms. CEOs were our main informants.

Findings – The results obtained show that support from top managers will directly influence the organizational learning (OL) process and technological distinctive competencies (TDCs) (antecedents of corporate entrepreneurship) and that corporate entrepreneurship finally influences organizational performance.

Research limitations/implications – The paper is exploratory in character, and its goal is to show whether interrelations exist between the variables. The main limitations are: the sectors chosen refer only to Spain; the analysis is cross-sectional in character; the study uses a single method and self-reports (CEOs).

Practical implications – To obtain perfect adaptation of the firm to its environment, it is crucial that managers develop corporate entrepreneurship to improve high-technology sector firms' performance. The paper shows the important role of the top manager's support in developing TDCs and OL. Success in such issues is of vital importance to corporate entrepreneurship in the firm.

Originality/value – The paper seeks to stimulate new lines of research on one variable (TDCs) and to relate it to other constructs, producing new relationships and observing their repercussions for the firm.
note: Journal article
What is innovation and entrepreneurship? Lessons for larger organisations Some full text available
In recent years a language has emerged that carries with it a great deal of hope and optimism. Enterprise, entrepreneurship and innovation are just three of the terms that are used, often interchangeably, but with very little understanding and clarity. Whether or not this language has at its core the processes that will lead to the salvation of businesses and organisations, what is guaranteed is that progress will not be achieved unless there is greater clarity in this area. Entrepreneurship is often viewed as a small business/new venture phenomenon, but increasingly it is being applied in the corporate sector. Innovation is another well-used term that unfortunately has a number of meanings attached. The aim of this paper is to explore the topics of entrepreneurship and innovation, particularly from the perspective of the larger organisation, with a view to bringing some clarity to usage of the terms. It is important that this clarity exists as language is at the core of individual, business, and organisational performance and success. The current confusion and uncertainty leads to lower levels of competitive output.
note: Journal article
“Women doing their own thing”: media representations of female entrepreneurship Some full text available
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss the impact gendered media representations of entrepreneurs may have on the reality of female entrepreneurship. It analyses the representation of women entrepreneurs in a women's magazine. Media representations influence, firstly, whether women perceive entrepreneurship as desirable and attainable, and thus impact the strength and direction of their entrepreneurial aspirations. Secondly, media representations shape how key stakeholders such as bankers or clients view and interact with female business owners, thereby impacting women entrepreneurs’ business relations and opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach – The paper reviews research on media representations of women entrepreneurs, gender inequalities in entrepreneurial activity and work before presenting an in-depth qualitative analysis of a magazine series reporting on female entrepreneurs.

Findings – The authors’ analysis reveals how the woman's magazine in question portrays female entrepreneurship as focused on traditionally female activities and pursuits and as domestically-centred. Relating these findings to evidence on gender inequalities in entrepreneurial activity, the paper raises important questions about the impact of media representations of women entrepreneurs.

Originality/value – The paper demonstrates the benefits of understanding entrepreneurial activity as work and includes analytical perspectives from the sociology of work in the analysis of media representations of entrepreneurship.
note: Journal article

Course Outline


Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship Some full text available
As self-employment and entrepreneurship become increasingly important in our modern economies, Simon C. Parker provides a timely, definitive and comprehensive overview of the field. In this book he brings together and assesses the large and disparate literature on these subjects and provides an up-to-date overview of new research findings. Key issues addressed include: the impact of ability, risk, personal characteristics and the macroeconomy on entrepreneurship; issues involved in raising finance for entrepreneurial ventures, with an emphasis on the market failures that can arise as a consequence of asymmetric information; the job creation performance of the self-employed; the growth, innovation and exit behaviour of new ventures and small firms; and the appropriate role for governments interested in promoting self-employment and entrepreneurship. This book will serve as an essential reference guide to researchers, students and teachers of entrepreneurship in economics, business and management and other related disciplines.

AuthorParker, Simon. C   
PublisherCambridge University Press
Date Published: 02/2004 
SubjectsManagerial economics.   Entrepreneurship.   New business enterprises -- Management.  Self-employed.   Self-employed -- Government policy -- Case studies.  
note: e-Book
Enterprise in Action : A Guide To Entrepreneurship Some full text available
This book covers the following topics:
Change and Opportunity Destination: Core Competence, A Natural History of Innovation, Shades of Originality Biography and Capability, Niche Markets and Entry Barriers, Cruising Altitude, The Challenge of Inheritance, Opening the Box Beyond the Box 

AuthorLawrence, Peter   
Date Published: 03/2013 
SubjectsEntrepreneurship.   New business enterprises -- Management.   Organizational change.  
note: e-Book
Enterprising Entrepreneurship : Concepts and Guidelines Some full text available
This books covers the following topics Enterprising, Entrepreneurs: An Overview, Etrepreneurship, Theories and Origin Entrepreneurial, Organisation and Performance Appraisal Types & Motivation, Various Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Indian Context, Strategies of Entrepreneurial Bargaining, Developing Entrepreneurship Among Rural Women: Issues & Problems 

AuthorPande, Jagdish   
PublisherGlobal Media
Date Published: 2009 
note: e-Book
Entrepreneurship and Innovation : An Economic Approach Some full text available
One of the great transformations of humankind in the past several hundred years has been a change in human nature as the result of the Industrial Revolution. It is generally thought that the serfs who left the manors in medieval Europe were entrepreneurs of a type. These individuals who escaped the manor and were away for one year and one day were termed “freedmen.” These individuals generally joined the traveling carnivals that moved from manor to manor and began selling and tradingvarious wares. The desire to “change the way things are done,” which is a characteristic of entrepreneurs, has long existed in history. Very simply, today’s entrepreneur is a person who makes a change in the type of good or service available for sale or in the way goods and/or services are provided in order to make the production process work more smoothly. The result of the efforts of the entrepreneur is some form of innovation.

AuthorMcDaniel, Bruce A.   
PublisherM.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Date Published: 05/2002 
note: e-Book
Entrepreneurship Development Some full text available
This book comprises of the following topics: Entrepreneur, Entrepreneurship, Factors affecting entrepreneurial growth, Entrepreneurship development in India, Small-scale industry-An Overview, Project Identification, Project Formulation Project Appraisal, Institutional support to Entrepreneur, Institutional finance to Entrepreneur 

AuthorGordon, E.   Natarajan, K.   Arora, Amishi   
PublisherGlobal Media
Date Published: 2009 
note: e-book
Entrepreneurship Development and Production Management Some full text available
Due to enhancement in population, need for very survival of human beings have become a big question mark. The unemployment amongst the increasing population can be solved if many new entrepreneurs are generated. Entrepreneur means creation of new potential for unemployed youth. One new entrepreneur may provide a minimum of 200 employment and this way it may amount to solve the employment problems. This requires the knowledge of financial institutions, availability of raw materials, market survey, quality consciousness and cost benefit analysis. The management of transformation process to new product is production management (PM). PM takes care of raw materials, their transformation to new product and their effective management. 

AuthorS., Srivastav R.P.   
PublisherGlobal Media
Date Published: 2007 
SubjectsEntrepreneurship.   Production management. 
note: e-Book
Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Sustainability Some full text available
As the world’s population continues to climb, along with aspirations for lifestyles that require increasing amounts of energy, the need for new approaches to energy production and use has become increasingly evident. Attempts to change the environmental attitudes and everyday environmentally relevant behaviours of people around the world continue to be worthy goals for reducing the negative effects of modern lifestyles. Nevertheless, changes in everyday attitudes and behaviour are not likely to be sufficient to achieve the scale of change needed if we are to succeed in saving the planet from our unsustainable consumption of natural resources and the accumulation of various types of toxic waste that are associated with such consumption. In addition, the planet’s future depends on our success in achieving large-scale, discontinuous changes in the way people live. Such change will come about in response to the creation of new technologies that alter the way people live. Innovations can restructure the social and technical infrastructures that support everyday life at work and at home in ways that reduce the need for individuals to make choices that pit personal gratification against environmental protection. But how can such innovation be achieved? What factors influence whether new innovations will be adopted initially, and eventually be disseminated widely? In this volume, authors with expertise in a variety of fields discuss the challenges that must be met in order to successfully develop and deploy innovations that promote sustainable economic and social development worldwide.

PublisherGreenleaf Publishing
Date Published: 04/2012 
SubjectsEntrepreneurship.   Industrial management.   Social responsibility of business.  Sustainable development.   Creative ability in business.   
note: e-Book
Innovation, Entrepreneurship, and Technological Change Some full text available
This book covers the following topics:
Innovation, entrepreneurship, and technological change: an overview, The entrepreneur as innovator, Fundamental concepts of innovation and technological change, R&D and firm performance, The economics of R&D and economic growth, Innovation in the service sector, Technological spillovers and general purpose technologies, University technology transfer, University research parks, Government as entrepreneur and innovator, Innovation, entrepreneurship, and technological change: a research agenda.

AuthorLink, Albert   Siegel, Donald   
PublisherOxford University Press
Date Published: 06/2007 
SubjectsTechnological innovations.   Entrepreneurship.   

note: e-Book
Modern Entrepreneur and Entrepreneurship : Theory, Process and Practice Some full text available
The book has been written to meet the requirements of the syllabus prescribed for B.Com., B.B.A., M.Com., and M.B.A. courses of Indian Universities. The book is exhaustive in every sense and cover a large spectrum of subject. In the present economic conditions Entrepreneurship is a subject with wide connotation. The present book deals with the subject matter which is changing which have acquired a critical significance at national and international level.

AuthorKumawat, H.S.   
PublisherGlobal Media
Date Published: 2009 
note: e-Book
Search for Social Entrepreneurship Some full text available
Research on social entrepreneurship is finally catching up to its potential for supporting socially entrepreneurial activity in society as a whole. Drawn by increasing financial support and public interest, researchers are laying the foundation for a distinctive field of inquiry. The increased research activity can be seen in a number of indicators, including the number of recent articles cited in the references at the end of this book. Many schools of business and public affairs have launched new training programs for nascent social entrepreneurs, which in turn have created demand for teaching cases and curriculum and which in turn again have created demand for rigorous research.

AuthorLight, Paul C.   
PublisherBrookings Institution Press
Date Published: 2008 
SubjectsNonprofit organizations -- Management.   Social entrepreneurship.   
note: e-Book
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