Business Ethics and Corporate Governance.
This guide is meant to assist all students in the faculty of Commerce to gratify their information needs on Business Ethics and Corporate Governance. Business Ethics is one of the most vital aspects in this ever changing business environment. It enables students to venerate social code of conduct and understand social responsibility in the business arena.
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Journals/Magazines

The nexus between ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility: An internal organisational perspective. Some full text available
Purpose– The commentary aims to consider the nexus between corporate marketing, ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility. It seeks to take an explicit internal organisational perspective. It also aims to identify future research avenues.
Design/methodology/approach– The commentary explains the relevance of the previous interlinking concepts with a discussion based on a review of past and current research.
Findings– While highlighting the need for a fundamental reappraisal of marketing at the organisational level, it outlines potential problems and pitfalls with internal organisational ethical alignment, between employees and their organisation's ethical corporate identity.
Practical implications– Enhanced appreciation for ethical corporate marketing and identity along with some of the challenges faced with internal ethical alignment, can help organisations and institutions to become more astute with the management of internal stakeholder relationships.
Originality/value– The employee perspective for ethical corporate marketing, ethical corporate identity and corporate social responsibility are all relatively under‐researched. This commentary attempts to address this by providing an overview of these intertwining concepts in relation to internal ethical concerns.
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A conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations: Structures, processes and performance. Some full text available

Purpose– The objective of this paper is to introduce and describe a conceptual framework of corporate and business ethics across organizations in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance.
Design/methodology/approach– A framework is outlined and positioned incorporating an ethical frame of reference in the field of organizational chain management.
Findings– A number of areas and sub‐areas of corporate and business ethics are framed in the context across organizations.
Research limitations/implications– The introduced framework should be seen as a seed for further development and refinement. It provides opportunities for further research of ethical concerns across organizations.
Practical implications– Organizations may benefit from the findings and insights presented and they may be used to enhance their ability to manage, monitor and evaluate ethical business practices across organizations.
Social implications– Changing societal and market patterns may enforce organizations to address ethicalconcerns across organizations. A myopic approach restricted to the judicial system may become insufficient and unsatisfactory from the perspective of other stakeholders of the organization.
Originality/value– The framework makes a contribution bringing in ethical concerns across organizations, providing a basis for their ethical values and culture, as well as asymmetric relationships in terms of power and dependence. The authors believe that a true learning organization needs to realise the importance of an extended view of its endeavors of corporate and business ethics in terms of ethical structures, ethical processes and ethical performance across organizations.
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Corporate social responsibility, ethics, and corporate governance. Some full text available
Purpose– This inquiry into companies listed on the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange (HOSE) in Vietnam seeks to discern whether such constructs as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and ethics act as antecedents for corporate governance.
Design/methodology/approach– Three hundred and seventeen responses returned from self‐administered structured questionnaires relayed to 1,173 middle level managers were analyzed via ANOVAs and structural equation modeling (SEM).
Findings– From the results an interplay emerged between the ethics of justice and legal CSR/economic CSR. The ethics of care, on the other hand, tend to cultivate ethical CSR, which in turn positively influences corporate governance.
Originality/value– From the results of the research, insight into the linkage pattern of corporate governance and its antecedents highlights the magnitude of the ethics training program as well as CSR initiatives in reinforcing corporate governance in listed companies in Vietnam.


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Ethics and the economy. Some full text available
Purpose– An examination of the economy reveals it to be structured in ways that contradict generally accepted ethical values. This is primarily due to the narrowness of its principles, being focused on the maximisation of monetary costs and benefits and on the separation of the economic realm from the realm of ethics. Economics now exists as an independent realm in which some crucial values can be routinely disregarded. The problematic nature of the economy is most apparent when issues of global sustainability and justice are considered. It is argued that these problems are systemic; they are inevitably generated by the structures built into the current economic theory and practice and cannot be remedied without fundamental system replacement. A radically alternative economy is sketched, in which institutions and practices enable and reward more satisfactory values. Implications for the economics profession are considered, notably to do with the lack of concern with the problems evident within economics. It is suggested that “virtue ethics” best enables thinking about this field. This paper seeks to discuss these issues.
Design/methodology/approach– The paper is a critical theoretical discussion of the ethical implications of the economy. Thus, there is little to say about “methodology” other than that several aspects of conventional economic theory and practice are considered, and in general rejected.
Findings– The paper rejects conventional economic theory and practice and points to the need for a radically alternative model.
Originality/value– The author is not aware of work making the main points this paper raises, i.e. to do with the important connections with “The Simpler Way” perspective on sustainability and economics.


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Managing stakeholders’ influence on embracing business code of conduct and ethics in a local pharmaceutical company: Case of Kampala Pharmaceutical Industries (KPI). Some full text available
Purpose

This paper aims to avail a soft approach to embracing the process of creating a business code of conduct and ethics and make it work for a pharmaceutical company [player] which wants to remain relevant before stakeholders and society, amidst escalating inducements to go against the acceptable pharmaceutical behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was guided by qualitative methodologies. A four stepwise process was followed: data collection at the case company – Kampala Pharmaceutical Industries (KPI), Uganda; validation of data collected at KPI; data collection from external stakeholders of KPI; and re-validation of KPI data based on data collected from external stakeholders. In all this, combination of semi-structured and informal interviews with CEOs, senior staff managers, non-participant observation of ethical related activities plus organizing a stakeholder engagement workshop on business code of conduct and ethics was achieved. This workshop helped document what ought to be an ideal design process to secure stakeholder buy-in of the code of business ethics. A local pharmaceutical company in Uganda, KPI was used, which, for continuous five years since its adoption of the business code of conduct and ethics, registered commercial viability without any record of unethical practices. Triangulation was used to ensure credibility and validity of the results. For data analysis, a three-stepwise process was followed, which helped develop a framework within which the collected data revealed themes which were later analyzed. For generalization of the findings, the “adaptive theory approach” was used.

Findings

When poorly introduced in an organization, the business code of conduct and ethics can work against the company simply because it will be received with “intentional rebellion” from stakeholders, notably staff. However, when a soft stakeholder engagement and consultative approach is used and followed during the business code of ethics and conduct’s design process, multiple stakeholders feel proud and are much willing to live by the promise spelt out in it. Cited notable benefits of living by the code include reputational enhancement, strategic competitiveness and increased possibilities of wining cross-border cooperation among like-minded pharmaceutical players. In the efforts to reap from the code of ethics, communication was observed as an indispensable activity. Refresher trainings to remind the stakeholders about the promises in the code are also needed as time passes by, otherwise they forget. Needless to say, rewarding those who live an exemplary life in embracing and living by the code was cited as key in sustaining the ethical agenda. Lastly, managing multiple stakeholders influences is a curvilinear fashion and involves back and forth consultations.

Practical implications

The lessons learnt from KPI can be borrowed and used by both global pharmaceutical players and national/local players, especially those that face challenges living by the promise of their existing codes or those without business code of conduct and ethics. That is, both players can use the suggested process to help participants in their medicine supply chain to come up with working business codes of conduct, as well as guide the stakeholder consultative process which results in stakeholder buy-in.

Originality/value

For many years, issues surrounding bioethics have dominated priorities of World Health Organization (WHO), UNESCO and many international and national development allies. However, there is an escalating violation of medical codes of conduct and ethics. Hence, this publication is a step toward the implementation of the principles and objectives of the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights which is currently challenged with a difficult question posed by life sciences – How far can we go given the dented medical relationship between ethics, medical science and freedom?
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Operational ethical banking in Rastin Banking: (Professional ethics, auditing, inspection, control, monitoring and preservation). Some full text available
Purpose

This paper aims to discuss some of the operational Islamic banking features considered in ethical banking as the aspects of Rastin Banking. Ethical banking is a branch of “ethiceconomics” and a narrow expression of a number of Islamic banking aspects.

Design/methodology/approach

These features are often involved in the discussions under the topic of internal control and describe the operational characteristics of ethical banking within the framework of Rastin Banking.

Findings

This study refers to the principles of Rastin Banking, including operational, financial, economic, ethical, social, legal, international and organizational principles. Additionally, it takes into account some of the internal control systems.

Research limitations/implications

Converting ethical codes into executable laws and regulations needs sophistication, and the art of codification in this subject can be observed in the present paper.

Practical implications

As far as the ethical behaviour of the assessor and trustee is concerned, the necessities of honesty, belief, virtuosity, rectitude and compliance with moral values, as well as reward and punishment mechanisms, are operationally examined. Transparency, governance and disclosure of information are the other components. The methods of auditing, accounting, inspection and preservation of Rastin Banking achievements are amongst the other matters of concern.

Social implications

An assiduous attention to the operational details of each of the above-said discussions revealed that the Islamic banking components are capable of covering the topics and discussions beyond ethical banking.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to solve the practical ethical problem in operational banking.
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Social Responsibility Journal. Some full text available
The Social Responsibility Journal, the official journal of the Social Responsibility Research Network, is interdisciplinary in its scope and encourages submissions from any discipline or any part of the world which addresses any element of the journal's aims. The journal encompasses the full range of theoretical, methodological and substantive debates in the area of social responsibility. Contributions which address the link between different disciplines and / or implications for societal, organisational or individual behavior are especially encouraged.  
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Teaching corporate crisis management through business ethics education. Some full text available
Purpose– The purpose of this research was threefold, including to provide a four-point rationale for teaching corporate crisis management as a module within a course on ethical decision-making in business and organizations; to provide evaluative data supporting this approach; and to highlight the implications of this approach for human resource development and training.
Design/methodology/approach– Thirty-four undergraduates in a required course on ethical decision-making in business and organizations completed pre- and post-course assignments assessing their knowledge about crisis/management, as well as their skills in crisis recognition, evaluation and action planning. Participants also completed a survey on their perceptions of the crisis management module and its placement within the ethics course.
Findings– Statistical analyses demonstrated significant knowledge acquisition on crisis/management; significant skill development on crisis recognition, evaluation and action planning; and significantly greater “true positives” and significantly fewer “false negatives” in post-course identification of crisis warning signs. Perceptions of the crisis management module and its placement within the course on ethical decision-making were positive.
Research limitations/implications– Although the sample size was relatively small, small samples are associated with a greater risk of failing to detect an effect that is present, rather than the greater predicament of erroneously concluding that an absent effect is actually present. This information, coupled with the fact that the results demonstrated not only statistical significance but also large effect sizes using Cohen’s d, inspires confidence. Nonetheless, additional assessment with larger samples would allow for the possibility of convergent evidence. Similarly, additional assessment within different organizational contexts, including applications in human resource training and development is warranted. Future research should also include assessment of specific underlying teaching strategies and evaluation of whether certain models are associated with greater learning on a broader range of crisis management skills.
Practical implications– Programs in business ethics education and training comprise one useful context in which to teach corporate crisis management. The program specified here addresses two training needs previously specified in the human resource development (HRD) literature on crisis management, including identifying specific methods of enhancing recognition or detection of crisis warning signs and also of providing tools and enhancing skills for assessing and containing crisis.
Originality/value– Despite the centrality of both ethics and HRD to crisis management, there has been a dearth of research on whether ethics education is a useful context through which to teach this topic. This research addresses this dearth and suggests new avenues for HRD in this respect.
note: Journal article
The application of causality to construction business ethics. Some full text available

Purpose– This paper aims to investigate two causality concepts, sphere of control (SOC) and agent–action–results (AAR), and their potential applications to construction business ethics. SOC is used in ethics training, and AAR is applied to ethical decision-making (EDM).
Design/methodology/approach– A framework of ethics training and a framework of EDM for construction companies have been developed. Interviews were conducted with experienced construction engineers and PhD ethicians to test the validity of the EDM framework.
Findings– Literature review has been conducted in ethical issues, ethics training and EDM, leading to the developments of the frameworks. The framework of ethics training incorporates SOC to reflect the ethicality and personality traits. The framework of EDM is based on AAR, combined with a stakeholder approach and Kohlberg’s cognitive moral development theory, with a review from EDM models in business. Both frameworks include project-level component to reflect the unique feature of the construction industry. The framework of EDM showed a good practicality through the interviews on an ethical dilemma example.
Research limitations/implications– For the ethics training framework, a long-term observation or survey should be accompanied to evaluate the framework in detail, tracing the improvement of ethicalness of course participants.
Practical implications– The customized ethics training will be more efficient and effective, as it considers individual ethicality. The scoring system of the EDM framework is simple and practical. This is particularly relevant for construction ethics management, considering that most of construction practitioners are engineers, not philosophers or psychologists.
Originality/value– Applying causality concepts, SOC and AAR, to construction ethics is a novel approach in construction management. This research has made a good advancement in construction ethics management by providing the right directions to be explored in these new areas.


note: Journal article
The failure of business ethics. Some full text available
Purpose– This paper aims to investigate the systemic causes of the failure of business ethics (BE) and suggest some possible remedies. The discipline and the movement of BE has at least three decades of history. BE has developed concepts and theories, and provided empirical evidences. However, BE as a movement and as a practice has failed to deliver the expected results.
Design/methodology/approach– The paper uses results from management ethics, moral psychology and corporategovernance to analyze the underlying causes of corporate unethical behavior.
Findings– The failure of BE is deeply rooted in today’s corporation-ruled business world. BE has failed to realize systemic features of modern business and therefore missed its target. The social, ethical and environmental problems caused by corporations may require a different kind of treatment based on law, politics and social institutions.
Originality/value– The paper uses models outside ethics to help business organizations to become more ethical in their functioning.


note: Journal article
Virtue ethics, CSR and “corporate citizenship." Some full text available
Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to critiques corporate public relations from the perspective of philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre.
Design/methodology/approach– It uses an essay format.
Findings– The essay is critical of proposed “communitarian-style” initiatives to take advantage of what are referred to by some public relations theorists as “consumer communities”.
Social implications– The essay details a more appropriate ethical approach to public relations by corporations.
Originality/value– This is the most extensive application of MacIntyre's ideas to public relations.


note: Journal article

Dictionaries

The AMA Dictionary of Business and Management. Some full text available
The AMA Dictionary of Business and Management covers a vast range of terminology from all areas of business including management, strategy, finance, human resources, economics, marketing, sales, insurance, and international business. The book explains accounting rules, legal terminology, slang and buzzwords, acronyms, management theories, historical figures, economic concepts, performance metrics, and more—all the crucial ideas that have transformed business practices and management science in the past 25 years. In addition to concise definitions, this indispensable reference includes longer entries for ideas needing more elaborate explanations, as well as a pronunciation guide for difficult words, special sections on usage, and a thesaurus of related words. While quick definitions abound online, The AMA Dictionary of Business and Management supplies the depth and clarity lacking in most “webinitions.” And it includes thousands of technical terms omitted from even premier unabridged dictionaries. From Abilene paradox to zero-based budgeting, this is an essential resource for anyone serious about business.
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Books

Agency Theory, Ethics and Corporate Governance. Some full text available
This paper is an exploration of the potential place, if any, for ethics in corporate governance. It begins with the influential role that agency theory has played both in the conception and reform of corporate governance. Its grounding assumption of self-interested opportunism leaves little or no room for ethics beyond what pays. This conception is then contrasted with a Foucauldian view of governance in which ethics is explored in terms of how an ‘ethic’ of shareholder value has been promulgated in the last decade. The third section of the paper explores the contemporaneous explosion of interest in corporate ethics and social responsibility and suggests that there is a nascent disciplinary regime being assembled which may redefine the terms of shareholder value to include environmental and social performance. What is paradoxical about both an ethics of shareholder value and corporate responsibility is that they are effective only through creating a preoccupation with the self and how the self is seen, rather than the other. The final concluding part of the paper suggests that ethics, following Levinas, should be understood in terms of sentience and the ‘responsibility for my neighbour’ that this assigns. Such a view of ethics refutes the individualism that agency theory takes as the essence of human nature, and Foucauldian analysis suggests is the product of disciplinary processes. Its grounding in sentience and proximity however offer it only a local role in corporate governance.
note: Book
Corporate Ethics and Values: Guiding Business out of the Maelstrom. Some full text available
Purpose – To integrate agency and stakeholder theories with the Jacobs Value Distinction (JVD) thus presenting a micro and macro reconsideration of the JVD for a finer grained perception of the values underpinning corporate and global governance initiatives.Design/methodology/approach – By extrapolating the JVD – commercial and guardian – this chapter examines the roots of moral malaise in the modern global firm. Examples and a theoretical rationale are given for identifying why and how ethical – moral problems continue to occur.Findings – A metaphorical maelstrom is discernible in the global business environment and more turmoil, especially in balancing business values, is emerging for the managers of today’s corporations. Application of the JVD predicts that under certain conditions the hybrid nature of the firm causes managers and shareholders to engage in morally risky behaviour. In further exploring the value basis of the 10 principles of the United Nations (UN) Global Compact, it is found that similar values conflict, which intensifies the need for international business managers to beware the moral risks.Research implications – This viewpoint draws upon sound theoretical analysis and future studies should collate case analysis and practitioner interview data to further consolidate the findings. The viewpoint gives managers a useful tool for identifying conflicts of values underlying decisions and forms the basis for continuous improvement in the context of operational and strategic actions in international business.Originality/value of chapter – The integration of the JVD with agency and stakeholder theories is new and critique of the 10 principles of the UN Global Compact via the JVD has not happened previously.
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Corporate Governance and Ethics Education: Viewpoints from Accounting Academicians and Practitioners. Some full text available
This study examines corporate governance and ethics (CGE) education by conducting a survey of academicians and practitioners in the United States. Results indicate that the demand for, and interest in, CGE continues to increase. More universities are planning to provide CGE education and many CGE topics are considered important for integration into the curriculum, although the degree of importance varies between academicians and practitioners. The two prevailing methods of CGE education integration are offering a stand-alone course in CGE or infusion of CGE topics into accounting courses. Results pertaining to the importance, delivery, and topical content of CGE education may be useful to universities that are, or are considering, integrating CGE into their curricula or redesigning their CGE courses. The CGE educational issues addressed in this study should help business schools design curricula to prepare students for the challenges awaiting them in the area of CGE.
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Corporate Governance Ethics and CSR. Some full text available
The rise of CSR (corporate social responsibility) is creating a paradigm shift in contemporary corporate culture and organizational behaviour with shareholder and stakeholder activism on the rise as international banking crises and global corporate scandals dominate the headlines. Through accountability and transparency, fiduciary capitalism is being challenged to tie sustainability and corporate conscience to the bottom line. With the emergence of impact investing, social responsibility and ethics in corporate governance is becoming essential to long-term success in the new global marketplace. Corporations need to demonstrate that ethical, environmentally conscious business practices and profit are no longer mutually exclusive. Justine Simpson and John R. Taylor's Corporate Governance Ethics and CSR gives the reader a comprehensive guide to today's requirements for governance and reporting that organizations must adopt to successfully strike a balance between financial gain and socially responsible, green business practices that enhance the greater good. Employing current examples (Walmart, Goldman Sachs, Citigroup) and case studies in both the public and private sectors, Simpson and Taylor have compiled a thorough and fascinating roadmap, including historical context, for anyone seeking to understand the complex workings of the international corporate economy that affects us all. This book is perfect for students of, and those wishing to participate in, this revolutionary wave sweeping our planet.
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Curricular and Programmatic Innovation at the Intersection of Business Ethics and Entrepreneurship. Some full text available
We explore the current landscape of business ethics and entrepreneurship within the undergraduate business school curricula and programmatic structure. We then present a couple of approaches we have used to advance the understanding and teaching of business ethics and entrepreneurship as a set of foundational principles.

As contextual framing for our analysis we convened eight colloquia/workshops over the past three years that bring a wide-ranging group of business school faculty, scholars in complementary disciplines, and business practitioners into a small-group setting to have in-depth conversations about the role of business ethics and entrepreneurship within the business school. Data used in our analysis catalog the ways and the degree to which AACSB-accredited business schools focus their undergraduate curricula and degree program structure on ethics and entrepreneurship. Working through publically available data, primarily from business school websites, we use content analysis as a framework for statistical analysis of the alignment between how a business school articulates strategic focus (mission, vision, and purpose statements) and how it structures its curricular offerings and degree programs. Most business schools continue to operationalize their approach to business ethics and entrepreneurship as programmatic appendages rather than a foundational set of knowledge and skills that are central to the school’s teaching mission. In general, business schools are missing an opportunity to teach practical business ethics and principled entrepreneurship as the central driving force in value-creating activities within all organizations.
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Ethics and Tax Compliance. Some full text available

PurposeTax compliance involves complying with the tax rules and regulation, which encompasses the filing, reporting and payment of tax. The two aspects of tax non-compliance are tax evasion and tax avoidance. While the ethicality of tax evasion as an illegal act of reducing tax is clear, the consensus regarding the morality of tax avoidance as a legal act of minimizing tax is mixed. This chapter will discuss the ethical perspective of tax (non)compliance.Design/methodology/approachWe approach this topic by discussing the two important terms of tax non-compliance namely tax evasion and tax avoidance from the ethical point of view. The tax evasion and tax avoidance were critically evaluated to justify whether it is ethical or not. The tax non-compliance is also associated to the corporate governance which if do effectively help to protect the interest of larger stakeholder.FindingsIn a nutshell, tax non-compliance such as tax avoidance and tax evasion is unethical act and these acts of non-compliance go against the spirit of contemporary corporate governance which sought to protect the interest of the stakeholders.Research limitations/implicationsTax non-compliance could enhance shareholders wealth (in terms of reduced tax); it affects the distribution of wealth (public benefits financed by tax revenues) among the society at large as another stakeholder affected by such act. Future research may be conduct to investigate this to the larger sample.Social implicationsFirms should avoid engaging in non-compliance activities such as engaging in tax evasion and aggressive tax avoidance as part of its social obligation to the society in line with the spirit espoused in the contemporary corporate governance.Originality/valueThis paper argues that tax non-compliance is unethical and highlights the importance of having efficient corporate governance for larger stakeholder’s interest.
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Managing Workplace Ethics: An Extended Conceptualization of Ethical Sensemaking and the Facilitative Role of Human Resources. Some full text available
Business ethics provide a potent source of competitive advantage, placing increasing pressure on organizations to create and maintain an ethical workforce. Nonetheless, ethical breaches continue to permeate corporate life, suggesting that there is something missing from how we conceptualize and institutionalize organizational ethics. The current effort seeks to fill this void in two ways. First, we introduce an extended ethical framework premised on sensemaking in organizations. Within this framework, we suggest that multiple individual, organizational, and societal factors may differentially influence the ethical sensemaking process. Second, we contend that human resource management plays a central role in sustaining workplace ethics and explore the strategies through which human resource personnel can work to foster an ethical culture and spearhead ethics initiatives. Future research directions applicable to scholars in both the ethics and human resources domains are provided.
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Resisting Corporate Corruption: Cases in Practical Ethics From Enron Through The Financial Crisis, 2nd Edition. Some full text available
This texts objective is to teach business ethics in a manner very different from the conceptual/legal frameworks which dominate graduate schools.  The book offers 25 case studies that cover a full range of business practice, controls and ethics issues.  The cases are framed to instruct students in early identification of ethics issues, and how to work such problems effectively within corporate organizations.  By pursuing these case studies, students should emerge with a practical toolkit that better enables them to follow their moral compass.  The cases provide examples of how executives can embed more ethical approaches inside alternative business strategies, redirect pressure and intimidation to parties better positioned to resist, and use the firms controls structure to counteract corrupt practices.  Specific cases take up the circumstances of whistleblowers and the changing protections afforded by recent laws.  Fourteen case studies examine Enrons crossing of various ethical lines from 1987-2001.  Eleven new cases examine key financial crisis moments at Countrywide, Fannie Mae, Citibank, Goldman Sachs and PriceWaterhouseCoopers.  Interpretive essays discuss the nature of sound financial controls systems, the lessons of Enron, and the extent to which the financial crisis shows Enrons issues to be unresolved.
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