Purpose– While earlier literature has focused on the management tactics of unexpected events, this paper employs an inter‐organizational network perspective to the study of unexpected eventsin international projects. The paper aims to illustrate how a focal project's local stakeholder relationships are associated with the emergence and management of unexpected events in the context of international projects.
Design/methodology/approach– A qualitative, multiple case study of three international projects conducted in challenging institutional environments.
Findings– The findings of this paper reveal the different mechanisms through which the local stakeholder relationships affect the emergence and management of unexpected events in international projects. Owing to differences in the amount and quality of local stakeholder relationships, the management, nature and number of unexpected events that are encountered differ from project to project. The findings of this paper reveal a paradox – both the existence of and the lack of local stakeholder relationships with salient actors may generate unexpected events in international projects. Based on the findings, two types of unexpected events related to local stakeholder relationships were identified: unexpected events that were due to misunderstandings, and diverging practices, processes, values and norms of the focal project organization and the local stakeholders; and unexpected eventsthat emerged due to the challenges in the establishment of direct and indirect relationships with salient external local stakeholders. Furthermore, the results demonstrate how local stakeholder relationships can be utilized in dealing with and managing the unexpected eventsthat are encountered.
Originality/value– Stakeholders are a significant source of unexpected events. Limited research attention has been directed at how the local stakeholder relationships affect the project's behavior and interior processes. The research advances project stakeholder research and uncertainty management research both theoretically and empirically.
note: Journal article
Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to identify the management principles of environmental sustainability for event tourism.
Design/methodology/approach– The paper takes a meta‐synthesis approach to review and to analyze collected papers in this subject.
Findings– To manage environmental sustainability in the context of event tourism is to minimize the negative impacts on critical natural capital. The environmental sustainability consists of these three interconnected components: the event organization, a place to host the event and the host community, and event‐goers. One should follow three management principles in attempting to add environmental sustainability to the management. First, sustainable eventmanagement requires careful planning prior to events. Second, taking responsibility in eventmanagement is crucial in achieving sustainability. Third, offering information and education to raise the awareness of event goers is the key to putting sustainability into practice.
Originality/value– A limited number of papers specifically address the importance of environmental sustainability in the management of event tourism and what their management principles should be. This paper brings together, integrates and synthesizes the different studies. Eventorganizers and practitioners can have a better understanding of environmental management in the context of event tourism and follow the three managerial principles to build a truly sustainable event.
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Purpose– The objective of this study was to examine the effects of performance and uniqueness as predictors of fundraising event quality.
Design/methodology/approach– This study utilized intercept surveys collected from attendees at a non-profit fundraising event organized by the tourism and hospitality industry in a major tourism destination. Factor analysis was used to explore underlying event performance dimensions. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess predictability of event performance and unique experience design as predictors of event quality.
Findings– Three salient dimensions were identified: Hedonic Event Performance, Event Design Performance and Informative Event Performance. Of the three dimensions, Hedonic EventPerformance was found to significantly predict Event Quality. However, Unique EventExperience provided stronger predictability of Event Quality.
Research limitations/implications– The results provide information which can be utilized by event organizers or managers to enhance the overall quality of fundraising events. The distinct attributes of event success identified in this study can be capitalized upon for improving future attendance. The use of event attendees from one particular event, which focused on a very specific cause, can be considered a limitation of the study.
Originality/value– This study focused on identifying different dimensions of a fundraising event which impact quality. The study provides insight into uniqueness of event experiences and their effect on event quality.
note: Journal article
Purpose– Although the core phenomenon of events is the experiences and the meanings attached to them, there is limited management research on the experiential, existential and ontological dimensions of events. Phenomenology provides a sound philosophical framework for studying the multifaceted dimensions of experiences and associated meanings of events. However, quite surprisingly, phenomenology has not yet been systematically applied on the eventmanagement field. The purpose of this conceptual paper is to introduce phenomenology to the study of events, demonstrate its value for the field and encourage as well as guide its application on event management research.
Design/methodology/approach– A review and synthesis of the main phenomenological streams of thought was undertaken in order to develop a research paradigm for the application of phenomenology on the eventmanagement field.
Findings– The paper explains why phenomenology is needed in the study of events and their management, its conceptual underpinnings and streams of thought and finally suggests a research framework for conducting phenomenological studies in event management.
Research limitations/implications– The consequences of the phenomenological perspective are delineated for explaining how the study of event meanings and experiences can be undertaken from this perspective. The limitations of phenomenology are noted such as the emphasis on “lifeworld” subjectivity and subsequent difficulty to claim the generalizability of research findings.
Practical implications– The suggested research framework can guide future event management research on how to apply phenomenology to the study of event experiences and meanings. On this basis, practitioners can get insight regarding how to develop and design events that optimize the perceived experiences of attendees.
Originality/value– While the experiential paradigm and the phenomenological turn have been spread across many disciplines emphasizing the essence of lived experiences in a variety of human interactions and exchanges, the event management field lags behind. This is unfortunate and has to be addressed as the experiences and meanings shape the essence of events. Therefore, this conceptual paper hopes to inspire, encourage and guide event management researchers to embrace and apply the phenomenological perspective on their future research endeavors, which can profitably complement and expand the predominant research paradigms in the field.
note: Journal article
– Changes to the economic and social fabric of rural communities in Australia have resulted in an outmigration of residents, shifting economies and disenfranchisement with rural life styles. As a result, events provide important social and recreational opportunities for residents. However, rural communities are constrained by limited resources, such as the number of individuals who are willing and able to participate in event organizations; therefore, it is essential for the sustainable organization of events that stakeholders are attracted and retained. This paper aims to apply a stakeholder theoretical approach to the organizing and planning of rural events to identify event stakeholders, monitor satisfaction and ensure stakeholder retention within rural events.
– A qualitative research design using a multiple case study approach examined event stakeholders in three rural communities of Southwest Queensland, Australia. In total, 54 in‐depth interviews were undertaken with event stakeholders and analyzed using an iterative thematic content analysis.
– The findings reveal that rural‐event stakeholders fulfill multiple roles, differentiated by risk, and fraught with competing or conflicting agendas. The paper identifies strategies that event organizers utilize to manage relationships, and that facilitate stakeholder satisfaction and continued involvement.
– There is limited understanding of event stakeholders, particularly in rural communities. Involving rural residents in organizing and planning events develops individual skills, knowledge and capacity. Rural communities benefit from an ability to deal with adverse conditions based on improvements in capacity of individuals and the community.
note: Journal article
Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to analyse event management by using three value creation logics, value chain, value network and value shop. In event management, value is generated through intermediation where the dominant creation logic is a value network. However, the complexity of events and danger of unexpected problems is increasing, which, in the worst case, leads to event failure. This fact makes it necessary to change the general attitude towards this topic from risk management to uncertainty management and use the value shop in order to solve problems efficiently.
Design/methodology/approach– This paper is based on the methodology of phenomenological hermeneutics which analyzes the object of study by interpreting the facticity and provides basics to generate a conceptual model.
Findings– The dominant value creation logic must be changed to prevent the value network from failure in generating value, since only the value shop provides high quality problem solving. Trust not only in planning but also in the own problem-solving competence and available tools is a major part of the value shop. As a practical example of high quality problem solving, the performance of high reliability organisations can be used by event managers.
Research limitations/implications– Using these hermeneutical gained logic, additional empirical research projects in eventmanagement, leadership and problem-solving competence of top managers, are promptly intended. Additionally, studies concerning competences and structures of the uncertainty management team have to be determined and developed as well as education and coaching has to be generated in order to achieve best results in problem solving.
Practical implications– Practical implications of this paper are: considering the value shop as the dominant value creation logic in uncertainty management; establishing a specially trained Complex Problem-Solving Team; and considering trust to be an essential element of the value shop.
Social implications– The basic job requirements a successful value net (event-) manager has to provide in such a complex system are: acting as integrator, mediator and problem solver simultaneously. Additionally event managers need to be trained to rethink the value creation logic and use the value shop within the value net to stay flexible and work successfully during their events.
Originality/value– Derived from this new perspective the necessity of enhancing the implemented value creation logic according to uncertainties allows event managers to solve unexpected problems faster and more efficiently.
note: Journal article
he International Journal of Event and Festival Management advances knowledge in the field of events management and enhances the uptake of such knowledge by academics in the field.
The double-blind peer-reviewed journal will cover events management issues ranging in scope from small festivals, business and special events to mega events such as the Olympics. Articles will be sourced from all disciplinary perspectives and a multi-disciplinary research approach is encouraged.
Purpose– The paper aims to introduce a framework within which to interpret and manageorganisational events that have marketing significance. It also seeks to introduce associated concepts to further this area of study and practice.
Design/methodology/approach– The paper introduces and appraises the marketing event landscape and goes on to examine the unique DNA of marketing events evaluating their specific relevance and role in the contemporary marketing environment. The final section of the paper explores a range of strategic event objectives as the starting point for event design, delivery, and evaluation. Couched between the author's previous and future (ongoing) empirical work in this area, this article provides much needed conceptual development.
Findings– The framework provides a structured approach through which practitioners and academics can interpret and realise the value of marketing events. The discussion demonstrates that there exists a wide and rich array of organisational events that have marketing utility, marketing events is therefore an inclusive term. Underpinning the framework, and associated discussion, is how the marketing events feed into a wider marketing strategy. The connection between event objectives and marketing strategy is therefore pivotal, and is a prevailing theme of the paper.
Originality/value– The paper demonstrates how the inherent qualities of marketing events are very relevant given the contemporary marketing environment. Despite this, there is a lack of academic literature and events remain a poor relation to other forms of marketing communication. This detracts from them realising their potential as a relevant and high impact marketing delivery method. The models, concepts, and ideas in this paper are original, inspired by a range of fragmented literature relevant to the topic of marketing and events.
note: Journal article
Purpose– This article attempts to provide a concise overview of the approaches towards managingevents in a changing market environment and summarises issues of responsibility, sustainability and quality management within events organisations.
Design/methodology/approach– In doing so, the paper will reconcile elements of corporate social responsibility and sustainable development within organisations. Whilst within a context of the events industry, the article will synthesise total responsible management and concepts of sustainable eventsmanagement and provide an introduction towards a premise of responsible eventsmanagement.
Findings– A mapping of management models found parallels that can be drawn upon to create a responsible event management approach, embedded by an amalgamation of quality management and sustainable principles.
Practical implications– In essence, the combination of approaches enables a business value and ethical led development towards responsible management and one which represents a holistic understanding and strategic intent to reduce event organisation impacts.
Originality/value– This article represents a theoretical introduction to concepts that underpin the development of knowledge towards sustainable management within the events industry and will allow students, academics and practitioners to develop an introductory awareness.
note: Journal Article
Purpose– Whilst the debate rages between progressive and destructive considerations of economic development, this paper aims to develop thinking around the sustainable event and its contribution to competitive advantage.
Design/methodology/approach– The paper defines the sustainable event and considers different position that might be adopted by private and public sector organisations when addressing the triple bottom line of sustainable development.
Findings– Cost leadership strategies are unlikely to work and the event organiser must address competitive advantage via differentiation and focus strategies.
Practical implications– Event managers must gain a better understanding of the motivations of their audience in relation to sustainability and work towards clearer means to demonstrate that their eventmeets these sustainable development needs.
Originality/value– The intention being that if event organisers can see a competitive advantage in the sustainable event, their contribution to sustainable development will be increased.
note: Journal article
The purpose of this study is to develop research theme categories, investigate thematic trends between 1998 and 2013 and present changes in event management research topics.
The coding instrument was developed for thematic analysis of 592 articles in four eventmanagement research journals and 106 event management articles in top-tier hospitality and tourism management (H&T) journals. Various intercoder reliability indices were calculated to ensure credibility of content analysis.
Major domains of research themes were identified across different periods and journals. Themes differed not only between the event management-focused journals and the hospitality and tourism (H&T) journals but also in different periods (1998-2003, 2004-2008 and 2009-2013).
First, this study analyzed all articles published in journals focusing on event management as well as event management research published in the H&T journals. Second, this paper improved the credibility of thematic analysis by developing a coding instrument of research themes and by reporting intercoder reliability. Third, this research captured changes in popularity of research themes of different periods and distinct research realms (eventmanagement journals versus H&T journals).
note: Journal article
The case can be used to teach behavioural perspective of the entrepreneurship theory for the students of Master of Business Administration (MBA) level. The case may be equally important to teach the marketing and operational context to discuss the perspectives of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
A young Indian professional had left his lucrative job in the pharma industry to start his own business of a small training centre that trained and placed young graduates with various pharmaceutical companies as medical sales representatives (MSRs). Without borrowing anything from the financial institutions, he plunged into the business in a rented room of a school in Kolkata, India. With every sincerity and path-breaking strategy, his vocational centre, named Carreograph Institute of Management Studies (CIMS) became number one in eastern India in training and placing MSRs and managers. With a number of hand-picked professionals from the industry, this young entrepreneur changed the concept of training by introducing short-term courses like Diploma in Pharmaceutical Management to technically prepare pharmacy undergraduates with professional skills and industry overview, Post Graduate Diploma in Pharmaceutical Management to cater to the contemporary management needs of the pharma industry. For the first time in India, Carreograph launched MBA in Pharmaceutical Management in the distance learning mode, and this strategy revolutionised the concept of management teaching in India. With a huge success in MBA, Carreograph was on the verge of launching another path-breaking course, i.e. Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) in pharma in the distance learning mode.
Expected learning outcomes
To analyse Tamal Chatterjee's entrepreneurial characteristics, motivations and expertise in the field and how these parameters support his proposed new venture, to consider the effectiveness of his entrepreneurial methods for finding out more about the proposed business area in which he is interested and to evaluate his idea of newly developed MBA and BBA programmes in terms of its expected acceptance among the student communities and consider if and when he should go ahead with expanding his current venture.
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note: journal article
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