Embryology as a field is in a period of unprecedented change in its knowledge base. Similarly, this is a period of great change in medical curricular planning. One of the most significant questions in embryology education for medical students is how much of the “new” molecular embryology to mix with the “old” developmental anatomy approach. The other question is the most effective venue for instruction in medical embryology. Not all medical curricula have the same objectives; nor do they use the same educational approach. With that in mind, this review outlines several ways in which medical embryology can be offered and how it can be integrated into the medical curriculum. It also lays out topics that are worthy of inclusion in a modern embryology course or sequence
Clinical Medicine is the journal of the Royal College of Physicians and aims:
To publish a broad range of content, including original research, review, guidance, and opinion, for the continuing medical and professional education of physicians.
To promote balanced and responsible debate on a variety of subjects, including the latest developments in medicine, healthcare, ethics and clinical leadership.
To maintain high levels of editorial integrity and to engage, inform and support the life-long learning of doctors of all grades.
To be a journal which informs, stimulates, and entertains.
[Information at the forefront of science, technology, and medicine]
Publishing integrated media content in the most promising areas of biotechnology, biomedical research, clinical medicine and surgery, engineering and technology, environmental studies and policy, law and economics, and public health.
More than 1,300 titles in humanities, social sciences and applied sciences.
Exercise physiology, in terms of the history of biological sciences, is quite young and has a rather tumultuous history – as it spans physical education, health & medicine, sport science, and biology. This has led to the development of differing definitions, research approaches, practices and goals. This is easily seen in the presence of competing and non-universally adopted definitions of fitness. Such internal inconsistencies portray to the outside world a discipline experiencing the problems associated with a changing paradigm. Every science requires the presence of a paradigm that both describes and guides the evolution of thinking, experimentation, and the application of such. It is argued here that exercise physiology has been operating without benefit of a satisfactory and relevant paradigm. A further proposition is that the required disciplinary definitions derived from an articulated paradigm are also absent. A paradigmatic scheme based on biological dogma is presented along with proposed definitions.
The techniques of forensic anthropology and pathology can provide new information to increase student interest in studying the structural details of the human skeleton. We present a simplified methodology for assessing skeletal ethnicity, sex, age, and stature. An inexpensive method has been devised for constructing an Osteometric board to allow students to measure long bones accurately. The effects of aging and the influence of lifestyle alterations on skeletal elements are presented along with the prediction of their effects on the living individual, This laboratory is intended to acquaint students with the process of collecting and analyzing data, interpreting scientific results, and assessing the accuracy of their conclusions. Gathering and analyzing their own data sets gives students a better understanding of the scientific method and an increased ability to translate this understanding to other scientific disciplines.
Amblypygids have modified front legs that are not used for locomotion, but rather to probe the environment in the manner of antennae. These elongate, motile sense organs are referred to as antenniform legs. We have found remarkable replication in structure and function of giant neurons in the antenniform leg of the amblypygid Phrynus marginemaculatus C. L. Koch 1841 when compared with other amblypygids. These neurons have such large diameter axons (several μm) that their action potentials can be recorded outside the cuticle. Their cell bodies are found in the periphery, in the distal-most segments of the antenniform leg, centimeters away from the central nervous system. Primary afferents from sense organs on the antenniform leg synapse onto some of the giant fibers in these distal segments of the leg. Standard histological techniques and a novel whole mount preparation were used to identify the location of giant cell bodies within the antenniform leg. We found several new cell bodies in segments 10–20, three of which were predicted by previous electrophysiological studies of another amblypygid, Heterophrynus elaphus Pocock 1903. Electrophysiology was used to show that the structure and function of four of the giant neurons, GN1, 2, 6, and 7, is very similar in P. marginemaculatus and H. elaphus. Heterophrynus elaphus inhabits humid tropical forests in South America while P. marginemaculatus individuals were collected from a pine rock hammock in the Florida Keys, USA. The similarity of findings in species with such distinct habitats suggests that the giant neurons are required for basic neuromechanical operation of these extended limbs, and are not subject to intense selection via ecological factors.
Kingsborough Community College, in Brooklyn, New York, is one of six community colleges in The City University of New York. In the Kingsborough Department of Biological Sciences, a two-semester sequence of courses in Human Anatomy and Physiology is required of students majoring in one of the Allied Health Science fields, such as Pre-Physician Assistant, Pre-Physical Therapy, Pre-Nursing, Pre-Occupational Therapy, and so on.
The first semester includes study of anatomical terminology, basic chemistry, the metric system, the cell, tissues, and the skeletal, muscular, nervous, and endocrine systems. The second semester focuses on the digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, immune, excretory, and reproductive systems. In each semester, one writing assignment is required for successful completion of the course. The assignment can be a review of the literature or an alternate of the instructor's choosing. This is where we opt to assign a Design Project.
Selection for the tamest animals has led to a breed that is much more attune to human behavior than their ancestors were. Dogs have a number of mental traits that seem very similar to those in humans. Studies indicate that dogs can predict social events, obey rules of conduct, cooperate, and imitate human actions. Dogs are also better than chimps at using human social clues to find food.
The flow of water and some other small molecules across cell membranes is important in many of the processes underlying reproduction. The fluid movement is strongly associated with the presence of aquaporins (AQPs) in the female and male reproductive systems. It has been suggested that AQPs mediate water movement into the antral follicle and play important roles in follicle development. AQPs are known to be involved in the early stage of spermatogenesis, in the secretion of tubule liquid and in the concentration and storage of spermatozoa. Fluid reabsorption in some regions of the male reproductive tract is under steroid hormone control and could be mediated by various AQPs. Also AQPs take part in the processes of fertilization, blastocyst formation (as the pathway for transtrophoectodermal water movement during cavitation) and implantation. Alterations in the expression and function or regulation of AQPs have already been demonstrated in disorders of the male reproductive system, such as abnormal sperm motility, the abnormal epididymis and infertility seen in cystic fibrosis, and varicocele. This article extensively reviews the distribution of AQPs in mammalian reproductive tissues and discusses their possible physiological and pathophysiological roles.
This new edition of Primate Anatomy undertakes the extraordinary challenge of presenting detailed morphologic information from primate species that must be accessible to the new, undergraduate primatology student, yet meticulous enough for the advanced student. Primate Anatomy reads easily enough to be useful to the new student. It also contains enough detailed information to allow the advanced student to synthesize functional and evolutionary trends across the primate order and to understand how these trends fit into the overall scheme of mammalian functional morphology and evolutionary biology. Because of Ankel-Simons' engaging writing style, zealous attention to detail, organization, and obvious familiarity with and love of the subject, the effort largely succeeds.
Understanding the normal anatomy of psittacine birds is basic to the diagnosis and treatment of disease in these species. As a first step toward a systematic investigation of the avian cardiovascular system, we conducted a 2-part study of healthy and diseased parrots. In the first part, the normal heart shape, size, and weight were studied in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Australian king parrots (Alisterus s scapularis) that were euthanatized because of genetic feather abnormalities. To compare results of birds of different sizes, measurements were evaluated in relation to the length of the sternum of the individual bird. Only minor differences were found between the 2 species studied. In the second part of the study, the spectrum and the frequency of pathologic changes of the heart and the major vessels were evaluated in 107 caged psittacine birds that were presented for routine necropsy. Of the birds examined, 36% had visible gross lesions of the heart, the major vessels, or both. On histologic examination, 99% exhibited at least low-grade pathologic changes of the heart or major vessels, which frequently were associated with noninfectious diseases. The results of this study emphasize the importance of cardiovascular disease in captive parrots.
Over the last decades, many tonnes of man-made chemicals have been produced and released into the environment. Many of these chemical substances have the ability to modulate the action of hormones and are called endocrine disrupters. Cell receptors that have been pure receptors for thousands of years have (due to industrialization), become susceptible to the action of exogenous chemicals. The balance of the endocrine system is very important in the human body especially in females because the menstrual cycle and fertility are very sensitive to hormone imbalances. This review considers the mode of exposure and action of endocrine disrupters and focuses on their impact on the female reproductive system, including female hormone concentrations, menstrual cycle, fertility, spontaneous abortion and the development of endometriosis. An attempt is made to elucidate the impact of endocrine disrupters on the female reproductive system, while admitting that most scientific data come from experimental animals and the conclusions cannot be applied to humans easily. The aim is to present available information, highlighting the impact of endocrine disrupters on the female reproductive system, in order to stimulate re-evaluation in identifying hormone disorders.
This book contains the following topics: Respiratory Pathway, Lungs, thoracic Wall and Diaphragm; the Heart and Great Veins of the Neck; t; The Peripheral Nerves, the Autonomic Nervous System; the Cranial Nerves, Miscellaneous Zones of Interest and the Anatomy of Pain.
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