Organizational behavior is the study of both group and individual performance and activity within an organization. This guide aims to help researchers studying the topic organisational behavior, be it lecturers, undergraduates or postgraduates. In the guide a researcher is guided to different sources such as journal, reviews just to mention a few. The sources are always available for free and can also be downloaded without incurring any costs. By using this guide you are well assured that the knowledge is authentic and it covers the topic widely.
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Engagement is a “buzz” word that has gained popularity
in Industrial/Organizational Psychology. Based on a “Positive
Psychology” approach, engagement is perceived as a valuable state
for employees, because surveys on the construct have found it cor-
relates with some organizational tactics (e.g., human resource
policies, procedural justice) and positive outcomes (e.g., growth,
lower costs, lower absenteeism). Reviews of the engagement liter-
ature suggest engagement is not clearly deﬁned, which is com-
mon with some popular cognitive/emotional constructs. Positive
Psychology is nothing new to behavior analysis (Luthans, Youssef,
& Rawski, 2011), which has many applications through the ﬁeld
of Organizational Behavior Management to create an “engaged”
workforce and culture.
Performance appraisal systems are often considered primarily in
their role as criterion measures for validation studies. Even when
they are considered in other organizational roles, there has tra-
ditionally been a strong focus on improving the accuracy of
the appraisals. The present article argues that the proper focus
of performance appraisal is to change employees’ behavior on
the job—both task performance behavior and contextual perfor-
mance. Speciﬁcally, appraisals are best considered as part of a
larger performance management system, where the entire focus
is on improving performance. Such a focus has important impli-
cations for how concerned we are about perceived accuracy and
fairness. Furthermore, when viewed in this way, it is clear that we
must consider how to leverage individual level performance up to
the level of the ﬁrm, since improving ﬁrm performance is critical
to any organization’s strategic goals.
This paper is designed to do three things while discussing the challenge of ethical behavior in organization. First, it discusses some reasons why unethical behavior occurs in organization. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance of organizational culture in establishing an ethical climate within an organization. Finally, the paper presents some suggestions for creating and maintaining an ethically-oriented culture.
This paper explores the case for a general threat-rigidity effect in individual,group, and organizational behavior. Evidence from multiple levels of analysis is summarized, showing a restriction in information processing and constriction of control under threat conditions. Possible mechanisms underlying such a multiple-level effect are explored, as are its possible functional and dysfunctional consequences.
This study investigated differences in the psychological involvement and task assignments of labor-contractor and employee engineers and the effects of the contractors on the attitudes of their employee coworkers. Findings partly supported the hypothesis that supervisors shift interdependent tasks to employees when contractors are present in their work groups. However, employees were not found to have greater quasi-moral involvement than contractors. In addition, the presence of contractor co-workers was associated with employee
This article reviews research on cross-cultural organizational behavior (OB). After a brief review of the history of cross-cultural OB, we review research on work motivation, or the factors that energize, direct, and sustain effort across cultures. We next consider the relationship between the individual and the organization, and review research on culture and organizational commitment, psychological contracts, justice, citizenship behavior, and person-environment fit. Thereafter, we consider how individuals manage their interdependence in organizations, and review research on culture and negotiation and disputing, teams, and leadership, followed by research on managing across borders and expatriation. The review shows that developmentally, cross-cultural research in OB is coming of age. Yet we also highlight critical challenges for future research, including moving beyond values to explain cultural differences, attending to levels of analysis issues, incorporating social and organizational context factors into cross-cultural research, taking indigenous perspectives seriously, and moving beyond intracultural comparisons to understand the dynamics of cross-cultural interfaces.
When employees voluntarily communicate suggestions, concerns, information about problems, or work-related opinions to someone in a higher organizational position, they are engaging in upward voice. When they withhold such input, they are displaying silence and depriving their organization of potentially useful information. In this article, I review the current state of knowledge about the factors and motivational processes that affect whether employees engage in upward voice or remain silent when they have concerns or relevant information to share. I also review the research findings on the organizational and individual effects of employee voice and silence. After presenting an integrated model of antecedents and outcomes, I offer some potentially fruitful questions for future research
Over two decades of research has indicated that group affect is an important
factor that shapes group processes and outcomes. We review
and synthesize research on group affect, encompassing trait affect,
moods, and emotions at a collective level in purposive teams. We begin
by defining group affect and examining four major types of collective
affective constructs: (a) convergence in group affect; (b) affective
diversity, that is, divergence in group affect; (c) emotional culture; and
(d) group affect as a dynamic process that changes over time. We
describe the nomological network of group affect, examining both its
group-level antecedents and group-level consequences. Antecedents
include group leadership, group member attributes, and interactions
between and relationships among group members. Consequences of
group affect include attitudes about the group; group-level cooperation
and conflict, creativity, decision making, and performance. We
close by discussing current research knowns, research needs, and what
lies on the conceptual and methodological frontiers of this domain.
Changes in contemporary firms and their competitive environments translate into a new focus in organizational research. This chapter reviews organizational behavior research reflecting the shift from corporatist organizations to organizing. Key research themesinclude emerging employmentrelations, managing the performance paradox, goal setting and self-management, discontinuous information processing, organization learning, organizational change and individual transitions, and the implications of change for work-nonwork relations. Research into organizing is building upon and extending many of the field’s traditional concepts. This chapter suggests that some assumptions of organizational behavior research are being superseded by those more responsive to the new organizational era.
The study of affect in the workplace began and peaked in the 1930s, with
the decades that followed up to the 1990s not being particularly fertile. Whereas job satisfaction generally continues to be loosely but not carefully thought of and measured as an affective state, critical work in the 1990s has raised serious questions about the affective status of job satisfaction in terms of its causes as well as its deﬁnition and measurement. Recent research has focused on the production of moods and emotions at work, with an emphasis, at least conceptually, on stressful events, leaders, work groups, physical settings, and rewards/punishment. Other recent research has addressed the consequences of workers’ feelings, in particular, a variety of performance outcomes (e.g., helping behaviors and creativity). Even though recent interest in affect in the workplace has been intense, many theoretical and methodological opportunities and
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